2강 ‘4.16 이후 무엇이 달라졌나’ 읽을거리

읽을거리 – [조한혜정 칼럼] ‘적대의 국민’과 ‘환대의 시민’ 사이 

링크 : http://www.hani.co.kr/arti/opinion/column/656470.html (한겨례 2014.09.24)

 

택시를 타면 좀 다른 국민들을 만나게 된다. 선한 인상을 가진 기사 아저씨가 말했다. “왜 그렇게들 돈을 좋아하는지…. 우리 마누라는 동네에서 작은 가게를 하는데 틈나면 동네 노인분들을 가게 앞으로 초대해서 삼겹살을 구워 먹어요. 어르신들이 아주 좋아하지요.” 어떻게 이렇게 훌륭한 국민이 있나 싶어 물었다. “세월호 사태는 어떻게 될 것 같나요?” “아, 박근혜 대통령이 잘하실 겁니다.” 나는 그 신뢰가 어디서 나오는 것인지 물었다. 그랬더니 “어릴 때 너무 배가 고파서 어린것이 풀뿌리를 캐먹고 그랬어요. 정말 너무 배가 고팠는데 박정희씨가 대통령이 되더니 밀가루 배급이 나오더라고요. 그래서 수제비라도 먹게 되어서 너무 고맙고….” 은혜를 잊지 않음으로 인간의 존엄을 지키려는 참으로 착한 신민이셨다.

 

또 다른 택시에서의 일이다. 기사 아저씨가 라디오에서 흘러나오는 역사 청산에 대한 이야기를 놓고 흥분하시기에 세월호 문제가 잘 해결될 것 같으냐고 물었다. 그랬더니 “아, 대통령이 잘 해결할 겁니다. 아무도 못한 역사 청산을 해냈는데 그것 하나 못하겠어요?”라고 말했다. “예? 역사 청산을요?” 하고 반문했더니 “전두환에게 돈을 내게 했잖아요. 역대 대통령 아무도 못해낸 일이에요. 일제 청산을 했어야 했는데 못했고 군사정권 청산도 못했는데 박근혜 대통령은 전두환에게 돈을 받아냈잖아요”라고 말씀하셨다. 덧붙여 “그분은 디엔에이(DNA)를 잘 타고났어요. 아버지와 어머니의 좋은 디엔에이만 물려받았지요.” 이 기사분은 스스로를 가장 합리적이라고 믿는 국민인데 어쩐 일인지 역대 남자 정치인에 대한 불신과 적개심이 대단하셨다. 어쨌든 개개인 모두가 아주 분명한 논리와 호불호를 가지고 있어서 인류학자인 나로서는 흥미롭기 짝이 없지만 이 나라가 어떻게 갈지 생각하면 참 난감해진다.

 

광화문광장의 국민 단식농성장에 가도 그렇다. 한가위 연휴 시작인 6일 오후, 단식농성장 바로 옆에서 ‘폭식 퍼포먼스’를 벌인 청년들이 있었다. 피자와 치킨을 나누어 먹으면서 단식을 하는 유족과 동조하는 시민들을 조롱하는 자신들의 집회를 ‘도시락 나들이’, ‘치맥파티’, ‘폭식 투쟁’이라 명명하고, 그날의 경험을 ‘서울 수복’이라고 불렀다고 한다. 이들은 모여서 애국가를 불렀다. 한국의 압축적 근대화가 만들어낸 현기증 나는 현실을 반영하는, ‘비동시성의 동시성’을 드러내는 현실이다. 그중에서도 청년들의 ‘장난’은 적잖이 염려가 된다. 이런 청년들은 한국에만 있는 것이 아니다. 이런 청년들 때문에 최근 일본 도쿄 신오쿠보의 한식당 ‘대사관’이 지난달 문을 닫았다고 한다. 한류 바람이 식어가고 중국인 관광객이 늘어난 이유도 있지만 그간 가게 앞에서 난동을 피웠던 ‘재일 특권을 허용하지 않는 시민 모임’(재특회)의 반한집회 탓도 크다고 한다.

 

청년 실업 문제가 심각해진 시점에 유럽에서도 ‘스킨헤드족’ 등이 인종차별적 구호를 외치며 난동을 피우는 ‘혐오 시위’가 자주 일어났었다. 학자들은 이런 현상을 취업도 연애도 할 수 없게 되어 무력감에 빠진 청년들이 떼로 몰려다니면서 힘을 확인하려는 과시 행동으로 해석한다. 이들의 행패가 위법적 소지가 있어도 경찰 저지가 쉽지 않아서 결국 성숙한 시민들과 언론의 개입으로 풀 수밖에 없었다. 작게는 그들을 더 이상 스펙터클로 보아주지 않는 시민과 여론이 일어날 때, 크게는 일정한 시민 수당과 일거리 창출로 청년 실존 문제를 풀어낼 때 문제는 해결될 수 있다. ‘재특회’가 한류 업소를 돌아다니며 간판 등을 발로 차고 “꺼져” 등을 외치며 난동을 부릴 때 시민들이 ‘증오발언(헤이트스피치)과 인종차별을 극복하기 위한 네트워크’를 만들고 활동을 벌여 혐오 집회를 줄일 수 있었다고 한다. ‘환대적 시민’과 ‘적대적 국민’과 ‘순종적 신민’이 각각의 모습을 드러내고 있다. 시간이 걸리겠지만 장기적 차원에서 자기를 보살피려는 포용적이고 환대적인 시민들이 늘어나면서 조율이 이루어질 것이라고 나는 믿고 있다.

 

조한혜정 연세대 명예교수·문화인류학자

 

 

기타 읽을거리

 

[조한혜정 칼럼] ‘유나’를 위하여

 

http://www.hani.co.kr/arti/opinion/column/652821.html

 

[조한혜정 칼럼] 애도, 그 환대와 생성의 장소 

http://www.hani.co.kr/arti/opinion/column/648961.html

 

[조한혜정 칼럼] 생각하기를 포기하지 않는 시민

http://www.hani.co.kr/arti/opinion/column/635784.html

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